Bags, dark circles and wrinkles. Take care of the eye area!
Oriana Chinni, Cosmetic Formulator
How many times have we woken up with the annoying feeling of having swollen and tired eyes? To notice bags, dark circles and periocular wrinkles and a duller look, increasingly surrounded by the inevitable signs of aging? Certainly many times!
The beauty of a woman is perceived by her gaze. Intense expression and brightness are the first things that come to the eyes of those you meet, and they reflect the well-being of the skin around the eyes. The saying “the eyes are the mirror of our soul” contains in a few words how much more true there can be, I would also add the skin that surrounds them!
Le borse, le occhiaie e le rughe perioculari sono inestetismi molto Bags, dark circles and periocular wrinkles are very common imperfections, they are more and more evident as we age, accentuated by periods or events that subject our body and our skin to continuous stress, making the face more tired, less luminous and aged.
What are the bags?
The bags they are generated starting from the loss of tone and elasticity of the tissues and are manifested by swelling under the eyes and sometimes with the presence of a dark halo. Their appearance can be linked to several factors: stress, particularly tiring periods, in which not enough hours of sleep accumulate, aging and oxidative stress.
Advancing age is one of the main reasons for the appearance of this imperfection. As we get older, the skin in the area around the eyes, which is particularly thin and delicate, loses elasticity and tone, tending to relax and increase the permeability of the local vascular system. Lower eyelid tissues may have a greater tendency to accumulate fluid due to local processes, such as atopy and systemic fluid retention. In some rarer cases, bursae can indicate some more serious pathologies.
What are dark circles?
Theeye bags they are mostly considered an “aesthetic concern”, they are defined pigmented macules, evident round and homogeneous in the periocular region. They appear as dark halos surrounding the eye making the look tired and dull, they can be sunken or slightly swollen.
This imperfection can be triggered by multiple etiological factors such as stress and lack of rest, family predisposition, dehydration of the eye area, excessive exposure to sunlight, photoaging, deposition of melanin in the dermis, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation/strong> resulting from contact dermatitis orallergie, shading due to skin laxity,smoke, alcool and unbalanced diet(2).
With the term KUMA we can encompass all the problems of the periocular area. Kuma is a word of Japanese origin which means “PANDA”, and is commonly used to indicate periocular problems such as dark circles and to a lesser extent bags, which resemble the dark area around the eyes, characteristic of this animal.
What is Kuma Teraphy?
Kuma therapy is an approach to fully address the imperfection of dark circles, which differ in color and the causes that determine their onset. There are various types of Kuma:
- Kuma Red,when the predominant color in dark circles is red and indicates inflammation
- Kuma Blue, when dark circles have a tendency to blue, linked to a circulation problem
- Kuma Brown, referred to brown dark circles when there is a problem of melanin accumulation
This makes us understand how complex and articulated the problem of dark circles is, because the evidence of the imperfection can be the result of one, two or all three of the problems mentioned above. This is why it is good to choose a product that acts completely on both inflammation and circulation and on the accumulation of melanin, to have a real effect on dark circles.
What are wrinkles and crow’s feet?
Worsening the appearance of the periocular area contributes to the loss of tone, elasticity and the appearance of the first signs of aging and the so-called“Crow’s feet”.
The skin surrounding the eye is an extremely delicate area, has different physiological characteristics than the surrounding skin, appears much thinner, the number of hair follicles and sebaceous glands is much lower, the collagen and elastic fibers of the dermis are numerically fewer , the subcutaneous fat is present in much less quantity and the lymphatic and blood circulation is rather slowed down.
All this contributes to making the periocular area extremely sensitive and much more subject to premature aging, at risk of the onset of expression lines and “crow’s feet”, because it is continuously subjected to environmental insults such as wind, humidity, temperature changes, and the natural movements of facial expressions.
In the laboratories of the BeC it was formulatedOro Rosa,an eye contour rich in plant active ingredients, able to act completely on all periocular problems.
What is Rose Gold and how does it work?
Oro Rosa is a delicate triple action emulsion formulated specifically for the eye contour, ophthalmologically tested, which makes the skin silky, compact, uniform, giving a luminous and fresh look. It performs an intensive anti-aging action, reducing wrinkles, counteracting the degradation of collagen by free radicals, exerts a botox-like and lifting action on the upper eyelids, also has a draining activity on bags and attenuates dark circles.
Pracaxi Oil acts on periocular wrinklesknown as “miracle oil”, which increases the hyaluronic acid content and the density of the collagen structure (3).The effect is completed by two peptides, defined biologically active ingredients “tailored”, which stimulate the production of new collagen and relax the muscles in a reversible and safe way, resulting in a botox-like tensor effect, with a relaxing action on expression lines and on crow’s feet (4).
The lifting effect on the relaxation of the upper eyelids is given by the synergy of two plant components, obtained from the bark of Albizia julibrissin, with anti-glycating effect and from the leaves ofSiegesbekia orientalis or Darutoside known as the “get well soon” plant for its healing and regenerating properties, and capable of increasing the synthesis of collagen and elastin. The different colored components of dark circles act on theAlpha Glucosyl Hesperidin, bio-flavonoid contained in citrus peel with antioxidant and vasoprotective action (5).
the phyto-complex obtained from the Oak bark and from Green tea performs an anti-inflammatory, tonic action on the microcirculation and decreases the production of melanin, reducing dark circles and improving bags under the eyes, making the skin uniform and healthy in color(6). Juniper essential oil, Theophylline and Caffeine contribute to the anti-puffiness action, with their draining and anti-edematous properties, while the stabilized Vitamin C and Bisabolol complete the anti-dark circles action with their anti-pigmenting action. and anti-inflammatory(7).
(1) Ivan Vrcek, Omar Ozgur, and Tanuj Nakra. ‘Infraorbital Dark Circles: A Review of the Pathogenesis, Evaluation and Treatmemt’. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2016 Apr-Jun; 9(2): 65–72. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.184046
(2) Fernanda Magagnin Freitag, Tania Ferreira Cestari. ‘What causes dark circles under the eyes?’ J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007; 6(3): 211-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00324.x.
(3) Simmons CV, Banov F, Banov D. ‘Use of a topical anhydrous silicone base containing fatty acids from pracaxi oil in a patient with a diabetic ulcer’. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2015. doi: 10.1177/2050313X15589676.
(4) McArdle JJ, Lentz TL, Witzemann V, Schwarz H, Weinstein SA, Schmidt JJ. ‘Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor’.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999; 289(1): 543-50.
(5) Huang YB1, Lee KF, Huang CT, Tsai YH, Wu PC. ‘The effect of component of cream for topical delivery of hesperetin’. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010; 58(5): 611-4.
(6) Katiyar SK, Matsui MS, Elmets CA, Mukhtar H. ‘Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin’. Photochem Photobiol. 1999; 69(2): 148-53.
(7) Ochiai Y, Kaburagi S, Obayashi K, Ujiie N, Hashimoto S, Okano Y, Masaki H, Ichihashi M, Sakurai H. ‘A new lipophilic pro-vitamin C, tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (VC-IP), prevents UV-induced skin pigmentation through its anti-oxidative properties’. J Dermatol Sci. 2006; 44: 37-44.
Cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the inflammatory process
Cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase are the two families of enzymes that are commonly involved in the inflammatory process, through a complex of reactions which is called arachidonic acid cascade. This complex of reactions develops as follows: a first enzyme, a phospholipase cleaves the phospholipids of biological membranes, releasing arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms (eicosa-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid ; C20:4; ω-6). The arachidonic acid is then transformed by two parallel enzymatic pathways, that is, by two families of enzymes: the cyclooxygenase which transforms it into prostaglandins and thromboxanes and the lipooxygenase which transforms it into hydroperoxides which in turn transform into leukotrienes .
There are two cyclooxygenase isoforms indicated with type 1 and type 2, briefly COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is the enzyme present in most cells (except red blood cells), and is constitutive, that is, it is always present. COX-2 is an inducible cyclooxygenase isoform: it is constitutively present in some organs such as brain, liver, kidney, stomach, heart and vascular system, while it can be induced (i.e. developed if necessary) following inflammatory stimuli on the skin, white blood cells and muscles.
There are various types of lipooxygenase that lead to different products, the most important in the inflammatory process is 5-lipooxygenase, 5-LOX.
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes are chemical messengers or mediators, that is, molecules that bring a message to specific cells and activate or deactivate metabolic responses in these cells. They, therefore, have a function similar to hormones, only that, unlike what hormones do, the chemical message is carried only at a short distance, that is, only to the cells that are in the vicinity of the place where the mediators were produced. There are different prostaglandins, different thromboxanes and different leukotrienes that carry specific messages. In many cases these act as mediators of the inflammatory process , therefore they trigger all the events that are involved in inflammation:
– vasodilation with consequent blood supply (redness),
– increased capillary permeability with consequent fluid exudation (swelling or edema),
– stimulation of nociceptive nerve signals (pain),
– on-site recall of immune system cells that attack a possible invader (chemotactic action)
– activation of the biosynthesis of fibrous tissue to strengthen or repair the affected part (even if there is no need)
– generations of free radicals that can chemically destroy an invader (but also damage our tissues, i.e. they just “shoot in the middle”).
Prostaglandins and thromboxanes, however, also play important physiological roles in normal conditions, i.e. in the absence of inflammation. For example, they regulate the secretion of mucus that protects the walls of the stomach, they regulate the biosynthesis of cartilages and synovial fluid in the joints, they regulate vasodilation, hence the correct flow of blood in the various local districts, and more.
Triglycerides are the main components of most oils and fats. These are heavy, non-volatile and little polar molecules, insoluble in water, made up of glycerol (or glycerin) esterified with three molecules of fatty acids: therefore, it is a tri-ester of glycerin, from which the name derives. Each fatty acid contains 8 to 22 carbon atoms (commonly 16 to 18) and can be saturated, mono-unsaturated or poly-unsaturated. The size of the fatty acids and their saturation determines the physical and sensorial properties of the triglycerides, which can appear as oils (liquids at room temperature) or fats (solid or semi-solid) and can have greater or less greasiness and smoothness on the skin. Unsaturated triglycerides or with shorter fatty acids are more fluid and have greater flowability.
Fatty acids (saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated)
The name fatty acids is commonly used to indicate those organic acids that are found in the composition of lipids, that is, in animal and vegetable oils and fats, both in the free form and in the form of esters with glycerol (e.g. in triglycerides), or they are esterified with “fatty” alcohols, that is, long chain alcohols, to form waxes. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids (formula R-COOH) which have a long carbon chain (R), unlike common organic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, which have 2 or 3 carbon atoms in total, respectively. Fatty acids are defined as saturatedif they do not have double carbon-carbon bonds, (called “unsaturations”), they are defined mono-unsaturated if they have only one, they are defined mono-unsaturatedpoly-unsaturated if they have two or more double bonds (see figure). The term omega-3 (ω-3) or omega-6 (ω-3), refers to the position of the first double bond starting from the bottom of the chain of carbon atoms: if the first double bond is encountered after 3 carbon atoms the fatty acid is classified as omega-3 , if after six carbon atoms omega-6 , as shown in the figure. The most common saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms and no double bond, C16: 0) and stearic acid (18 carbon atoms, 18: 0), the most common mono-unsaturated is the oleic acid, typical of olive oil (18 carbon atoms and 1 double bond in position 9, C18: 1; ω-9), while the most common poly-unsaturated are linoleic acid and linolenic acid, progenitors respectively omega-6 and omega-3 (see figure).
Terpenes and terpenoids
Terpenes or terpenoids are a large family of natural molecules, typically containing 10 to 30 carbon atoms, which are biosynthesized from a common “brick”, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), containing 5 carbon atoms (see figure). The discovery that the repetitive brick consists of 5 carbon atoms is relatively recent, while it was once assumed that the entire family was created by repeating a brick of 10 carbon atoms, which was called “terpene”. Therefore, the molecules with 10 carbon atoms (such as limonene, see figure) were called mono-terpenes, i.e. composed of a single brick, diterpenes those with 20 carbon atoms (e.g. the cafestol that gives the aroma to the coffee), triterpenes those with 30 carbon atoms (e.g. beta-carotene). Since molecules made from 15 carbon atoms were also found (such as bisabolol), it was thought they contained a terpene and a half, and were called sesquiterpenes (from the Latin semis = half + atque = and). Today it is known that the repetitive unit is composed of 5 carbon atoms, therefore it is easy to understand how mono-terpenes contain two (see figure), sesquiterpenes three, diterpenes four, triterpenes six.