Dietary Supplement, Ingredients
Natural remedies against excessive water retention
Dr. Elena Lucchi
Swollen legs,tiredness, tingling and water retention are common circulation problems for men and women. Beside being initially beauty problems, they can implicate several concerns. Several systematic causes can determine excessive water retention in tissues: long working hours in upright position, a sedentary lifestyle, an excessive salt consumption, some kidney disorders, uncomfortable shoes, high toxins stocking, drug abuse…
How to promote circulation and reduce discomfort?
We can adopt several precautions to overcome these problems: during summertime we should tonify our legs with jets of cold water or enjoy frequent footbaths to reactivate slow blood circulation that can cause oedema and water retention.
Further suggestions include lymphatic drainage massages and frequent exercise, with a special recommendation for a genuine healthy diet. Drinking a lot of water will help stimulate tissue drainage, which should be associated to increased intake of antioxidants and vitamins – i.e. vitamin C and E, Zinc and Copper with flavonoids of Cranberry – that will contribute by protecting peripheral circulation.
Helps the release of liquids with the Depur Plus food supplement
Among natural remedies, diet supplement Depur Plus – which contains the above mentioned ingredients – is designed to support the physiologic activity of the urinary tract, helping eliminate the residues of metabolic pathways and assure liquid and ionic equilibrium of our organism.
Active ingredients extracted from Cranberry act protecting and reducing inflammatory processes: they help maintain healthy kidneys and prevent the onset of infections. Such an activity is strengthened by the components of Birch, a natural salicylates-rich plant with antioxidant properties, along with the essential oils of Caraway, Cajeput and Juniper.
In order to favour kidney function and natural purification, several other botanical extracts endowed with known diuretic properties are included: Goldenrod, Java Tea, Mouse Ear hawkweed and Dandelion favour liquids drainage and the urinary function, and contribute to reduce liquid stasis. Moreover, dandelion extract, endowed with choleretic properties, stimulates digestion and diuresis, especially when extra detoxification is needed.
The very ancient Equisetum plant, known since ages for the diuretic action, is able to accumulate special minerals in the tissues (i.e. Silicates) to protect against pathogens’ attacks. Thanks to such ability in restore minerals, Equisetum has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for treating several bone disorder and it is recommended as draining agent that will not decrease physiologic mineral stocks in our body. Depur Plus takes care of body wellness, protects and favours normal kidney function and it could be “our ally for beauty” against liquid retention and aesthetic problems caused by cellulite. It can also complement wellness massage treatments to obtain more rapid and more satisfying results!
 Maki KC et al Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103(6):1434-42.
 Raudonė L et al. Quality evaluation of different preparations of dry extracts of birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves Nat Prod Res. 2014; 28(19):1645-8.
 Costa-Rodrigues J et al Inhibition of human in vitro osteoclastogenesis by Equisetum arvense Cell Prolif. 2012; 45(6): 566-76.
Cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the inflammatory process
Cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase are the two families of enzymes that are commonly involved in the inflammatory process, through a complex of reactions which is called arachidonic acid cascade. This complex of reactions develops as follows: a first enzyme, a phospholipase cleaves the phospholipids of biological membranes, releasing arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms (eicosa-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid ; C20:4; ω-6). The arachidonic acid is then transformed by two parallel enzymatic pathways, that is, by two families of enzymes: the cyclooxygenase which transforms it into prostaglandins and thromboxanes and the lipooxygenase which transforms it into hydroperoxides which in turn transform into leukotrienes .
There are two cyclooxygenase isoforms indicated with type 1 and type 2, briefly COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is the enzyme present in most cells (except red blood cells), and is constitutive, that is, it is always present. COX-2 is an inducible cyclooxygenase isoform: it is constitutively present in some organs such as brain, liver, kidney, stomach, heart and vascular system, while it can be induced (i.e. developed if necessary) following inflammatory stimuli on the skin, white blood cells and muscles.
There are various types of lipooxygenase that lead to different products, the most important in the inflammatory process is 5-lipooxygenase, 5-LOX.
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes are chemical messengers or mediators, that is, molecules that bring a message to specific cells and activate or deactivate metabolic responses in these cells. They, therefore, have a function similar to hormones, only that, unlike what hormones do, the chemical message is carried only at a short distance, that is, only to the cells that are in the vicinity of the place where the mediators were produced. There are different prostaglandins, different thromboxanes and different leukotrienes that carry specific messages. In many cases these act as mediators of the inflammatory process , therefore they trigger all the events that are involved in inflammation:
– vasodilation with consequent blood supply (redness),
– increased capillary permeability with consequent fluid exudation (swelling or edema),
– stimulation of nociceptive nerve signals (pain),
– on-site recall of immune system cells that attack a possible invader (chemotactic action)
– activation of the biosynthesis of fibrous tissue to strengthen or repair the affected part (even if there is no need)
– generations of free radicals that can chemically destroy an invader (but also damage our tissues, i.e. they just “shoot in the middle”).
Prostaglandins and thromboxanes, however, also play important physiological roles in normal conditions, i.e. in the absence of inflammation. For example, they regulate the secretion of mucus that protects the walls of the stomach, they regulate the biosynthesis of cartilages and synovial fluid in the joints, they regulate vasodilation, hence the correct flow of blood in the various local districts, and more.
Triglycerides are the main components of most oils and fats. These are heavy, non-volatile and little polar molecules, insoluble in water, made up of glycerol (or glycerin) esterified with three molecules of fatty acids: therefore, it is a tri-ester of glycerin, from which the name derives. Each fatty acid contains 8 to 22 carbon atoms (commonly 16 to 18) and can be saturated, mono-unsaturated or poly-unsaturated. The size of the fatty acids and their saturation determines the physical and sensorial properties of the triglycerides, which can appear as oils (liquids at room temperature) or fats (solid or semi-solid) and can have greater or less greasiness and smoothness on the skin. Unsaturated triglycerides or with shorter fatty acids are more fluid and have greater flowability.
Fatty acids (saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated)
The name fatty acids is commonly used to indicate those organic acids that are found in the composition of lipids, that is, in animal and vegetable oils and fats, both in the free form and in the form of esters with glycerol (e.g. in triglycerides), or they are esterified with “fatty” alcohols, that is, long chain alcohols, to form waxes. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids (formula R-COOH) which have a long carbon chain (R), unlike common organic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, which have 2 or 3 carbon atoms in total, respectively. Fatty acids are defined as saturatedif they do not have double carbon-carbon bonds, (called “unsaturations”), they are defined mono-unsaturated if they have only one, they are defined mono-unsaturatedpoly-unsaturated if they have two or more double bonds (see figure). The term omega-3 (ω-3) or omega-6 (ω-3), refers to the position of the first double bond starting from the bottom of the chain of carbon atoms: if the first double bond is encountered after 3 carbon atoms the fatty acid is classified as omega-3 , if after six carbon atoms omega-6 , as shown in the figure. The most common saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms and no double bond, C16: 0) and stearic acid (18 carbon atoms, 18: 0), the most common mono-unsaturated is the oleic acid, typical of olive oil (18 carbon atoms and 1 double bond in position 9, C18: 1; ω-9), while the most common poly-unsaturated are linoleic acid and linolenic acid, progenitors respectively omega-6 and omega-3 (see figure).
Terpenes and terpenoids
Terpenes or terpenoids are a large family of natural molecules, typically containing 10 to 30 carbon atoms, which are biosynthesized from a common “brick”, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), containing 5 carbon atoms (see figure). The discovery that the repetitive brick consists of 5 carbon atoms is relatively recent, while it was once assumed that the entire family was created by repeating a brick of 10 carbon atoms, which was called “terpene”. Therefore, the molecules with 10 carbon atoms (such as limonene, see figure) were called mono-terpenes, i.e. composed of a single brick, diterpenes those with 20 carbon atoms (e.g. the cafestol that gives the aroma to the coffee), triterpenes those with 30 carbon atoms (e.g. beta-carotene). Since molecules made from 15 carbon atoms were also found (such as bisabolol), it was thought they contained a terpene and a half, and were called sesquiterpenes (from the Latin semis = half + atque = and). Today it is known that the repetitive unit is composed of 5 carbon atoms, therefore it is easy to understand how mono-terpenes contain two (see figure), sesquiterpenes three, diterpenes four, triterpenes six.