Body, Dietary Supplement, Sport
HOME TRAINING: THE ROUTINE FOR YOUR WELLNESS
Federica Cuni, Personal Trainer and Kinesiologist
Exercising regularly is good for body and good for mental health, but it’s still difficult to stay motivated during this time, especially without outside guidance.
For this reason, it is essential, even from a distance, to be followed by a professional in the sector, with a degree in physical education, who can follow you on this 360-degree wellness path.
Home training has become the new routine for your wellness but you have to do it with meaning and following a schedule. Here are my tips.
CREATE YOUR ROUTINE
Take care of you.
Take your time.
Create your moment, it’s important to follow a routine.
Plan your day, write the weekly commitments on a diary, and among these include at least half an hour of physical exercise every other day.
It doesn’t matter if it’s morning, afternoon or evening, the important thing is that it works for you and becomes a constant in your days.
CREATE A SPACE AT YOUR HOME FOR YOUR ROUTINE
Dedicate an area of your house to training, an area in which to leave (or set up from time to time) the mat, the necessary tools and workout clothes. Having a dedicated space will not only remind you to work out, but it will also serve as a great motivator knowing that the space is ready to use and you don’t need to move furniture every time.
GET THE RIGHT EQUIPMENT
The basic tools are very few:
A fitness mat.
Fitness Ball. Particularly suitable for Pilates fans, or to perform some typical functional training exercises, such as the reverse crunch.
Rope. One of the most useful tools for practicing some cardio at home! Perfect for the warm-up phase.
Kettlebell. Training your legs and buttocks like you can in the gym! You can choose the weight most congenial to you and use it when performing squats, hip trusts, lunges.
Rubber bands. Test your endurance! The elastics are very useful both for toning the arms and legs, and for the final stages of our training. To be clear, during stretching.
Before starting the warm-up, help your muscles to reach the right temperature to work at their best effectively.
The ideal temperature to make muscles and the nervous system work well is 38/39 degrees, in fact with heating we increase our temperature by 1-2 degrees. This body temperature allows for better elasticity of the tendons and determines an 80% increase in muscle elasticity. The benefits are many, never forget to warm up. My advice this season is to use Olio Strongful Invernale, ideal for maintaining and improving elasticity, creating heat. Firms the tissues and effectively counteracts states of relaxation and atonicity of the epidermis. The sweet almond, wheat germ and carrot vegetable oils have a nourishing and restorative action. Perfect for starting and ending your workouts.
Also remember to hydrate and re-integrate the mineral salts lost during the efforts. You can use BeC natura’s supplements, an excellent help for our body associated with a healthy and balanced diet. Perfor Max, with plant extracts and micronutrients, has stimulating tonic properties and promotes physiological recovery in case of psychophysical stress and after intense workouts.
MUSCLE WARMING: THE BENEFITS
- Gradually increases heart rate and, consequently, also the flow of blood and oxygen to the muscle areas;
- Increases the body temperature at the muscle level, inducing an improvement in the elastic capacity of the muscle and allowing you to perform faster and more fluid movements;
Increases the production of synovial fluid, a product that has the important task of lubricating and nourishing the joint cartilages, avoiding the risk of degeneration due to wear, caused by mechanical friction;
Also from a psychological point of view, the warm-up allows an ideal predisposition to the next job, preparing you for the type of training you will have to face.
And remember: training is good for your body and mind!
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Cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the inflammatory process
Cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase are the two families of enzymes that are commonly involved in the inflammatory process, through a complex of reactions which is called arachidonic acid cascade. This complex of reactions develops as follows: a first enzyme, a phospholipase cleaves the phospholipids of biological membranes, releasing arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms (eicosa-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid ; C20:4; ω-6). The arachidonic acid is then transformed by two parallel enzymatic pathways, that is, by two families of enzymes: the cyclooxygenase which transforms it into prostaglandins and thromboxanes and the lipooxygenase which transforms it into hydroperoxides which in turn transform into leukotrienes .
There are two cyclooxygenase isoforms indicated with type 1 and type 2, briefly COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is the enzyme present in most cells (except red blood cells), and is constitutive, that is, it is always present. COX-2 is an inducible cyclooxygenase isoform: it is constitutively present in some organs such as brain, liver, kidney, stomach, heart and vascular system, while it can be induced (i.e. developed if necessary) following inflammatory stimuli on the skin, white blood cells and muscles.
There are various types of lipooxygenase that lead to different products, the most important in the inflammatory process is 5-lipooxygenase, 5-LOX.
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes are chemical messengers or mediators, that is, molecules that bring a message to specific cells and activate or deactivate metabolic responses in these cells. They, therefore, have a function similar to hormones, only that, unlike what hormones do, the chemical message is carried only at a short distance, that is, only to the cells that are in the vicinity of the place where the mediators were produced. There are different prostaglandins, different thromboxanes and different leukotrienes that carry specific messages. In many cases these act as mediators of the inflammatory process , therefore they trigger all the events that are involved in inflammation:
– vasodilation with consequent blood supply (redness),
– increased capillary permeability with consequent fluid exudation (swelling or edema),
– stimulation of nociceptive nerve signals (pain),
– on-site recall of immune system cells that attack a possible invader (chemotactic action)
– activation of the biosynthesis of fibrous tissue to strengthen or repair the affected part (even if there is no need)
– generations of free radicals that can chemically destroy an invader (but also damage our tissues, i.e. they just “shoot in the middle”).
Prostaglandins and thromboxanes, however, also play important physiological roles in normal conditions, i.e. in the absence of inflammation. For example, they regulate the secretion of mucus that protects the walls of the stomach, they regulate the biosynthesis of cartilages and synovial fluid in the joints, they regulate vasodilation, hence the correct flow of blood in the various local districts, and more.
Triglycerides are the main components of most oils and fats. These are heavy, non-volatile and little polar molecules, insoluble in water, made up of glycerol (or glycerin) esterified with three molecules of fatty acids: therefore, it is a tri-ester of glycerin, from which the name derives. Each fatty acid contains 8 to 22 carbon atoms (commonly 16 to 18) and can be saturated, mono-unsaturated or poly-unsaturated. The size of the fatty acids and their saturation determines the physical and sensorial properties of the triglycerides, which can appear as oils (liquids at room temperature) or fats (solid or semi-solid) and can have greater or less greasiness and smoothness on the skin. Unsaturated triglycerides or with shorter fatty acids are more fluid and have greater flowability.
Fatty acids (saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated)
The name fatty acids is commonly used to indicate those organic acids that are found in the composition of lipids, that is, in animal and vegetable oils and fats, both in the free form and in the form of esters with glycerol (e.g. in triglycerides), or they are esterified with “fatty” alcohols, that is, long chain alcohols, to form waxes. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids (formula R-COOH) which have a long carbon chain (R), unlike common organic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, which have 2 or 3 carbon atoms in total, respectively. Fatty acids are defined as saturatedif they do not have double carbon-carbon bonds, (called “unsaturations”), they are defined mono-unsaturated if they have only one, they are defined mono-unsaturatedpoly-unsaturated if they have two or more double bonds (see figure). The term omega-3 (ω-3) or omega-6 (ω-3), refers to the position of the first double bond starting from the bottom of the chain of carbon atoms: if the first double bond is encountered after 3 carbon atoms the fatty acid is classified as omega-3 , if after six carbon atoms omega-6 , as shown in the figure. The most common saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid (16 carbon atoms and no double bond, C16: 0) and stearic acid (18 carbon atoms, 18: 0), the most common mono-unsaturated is the oleic acid, typical of olive oil (18 carbon atoms and 1 double bond in position 9, C18: 1; ω-9), while the most common poly-unsaturated are linoleic acid and linolenic acid, progenitors respectively omega-6 and omega-3 (see figure).
Terpenes and terpenoids
Terpenes or terpenoids are a large family of natural molecules, typically containing 10 to 30 carbon atoms, which are biosynthesized from a common “brick”, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), containing 5 carbon atoms (see figure). The discovery that the repetitive brick consists of 5 carbon atoms is relatively recent, while it was once assumed that the entire family was created by repeating a brick of 10 carbon atoms, which was called “terpene”. Therefore, the molecules with 10 carbon atoms (such as limonene, see figure) were called mono-terpenes, i.e. composed of a single brick, diterpenes those with 20 carbon atoms (e.g. the cafestol that gives the aroma to the coffee), triterpenes those with 30 carbon atoms (e.g. beta-carotene). Since molecules made from 15 carbon atoms were also found (such as bisabolol), it was thought they contained a terpene and a half, and were called sesquiterpenes (from the Latin semis = half + atque = and). Today it is known that the repetitive unit is composed of 5 carbon atoms, therefore it is easy to understand how mono-terpenes contain two (see figure), sesquiterpenes three, diterpenes four, triterpenes six.